Undiagnosed HIV infection is a prominent clinical issue throughout Europe that requires the continuous attention of all healthcare professionals and policymakers to prevent missed testing opportunities and late diagnosis.
This systematic review aimed to evaluate interventions to increase HIV testing rates and case detection in European hospitals. Out of 4598 articles identified, 29 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Most of the studies were conducted in single Western European capital cities, and only one study was from Eastern Europe. The main interventions investigated were test-all and indicator-condition-based testing strategies. Overall, the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was well above 0.1%. The studied interventions increased the HIV testing rate and the case detection rate. The highest prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was found with the indicator-condition-driven testing strategy, whereas the test-all strategy had the most profound impact on the proportion of late diagnoses. Nevertheless, the HIV testing rates and case-finding varied considerably across studies. In conclusion, effective strategies to promote HIV testing in European hospitals are available, but relevant knowledge gaps regarding generalizability and sustainability remain. These gaps require the promotion of adherence to HIV testing guidelines, as well as additional larger studies representing all European regions.